Taxonomic Information in GRIN-Global


SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS IN GRIN TAXONOMY

(See also the Database of Botanical Taxonomic Categories on the Mansfeld server of IPK Gatersleben, Germany for further information on various taxonomic ranks.)

× denotes a cross between two species (e.g., Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum halepense) or part of the binomial for such a hybrid (e.g., S. ×almum), or precedes an intergeneric hybrid (e.g., ×Triticosecale).

+ denotes a graft-chimera, an individual composed of two or more genetically different tissues united by grafting (e.g., +Laburnocytisus) as treated under Article 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) (Brickell et al., 2016).

‘...’ single quotation marks surrounding a name at the rank of cultivar, a taxonomic rank applied to cultivated plants under Article 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) (Brickell et al., 2016).

“...” double quotation marks surrounding a designation that has not been validly published and is therefore not a name in the sense of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

= follows synonyms and precedes their accepted names; also precedes hybrid formula of hybrids, alternative accepted cultivar names, or other alternative accepted names in literature citations.

=~ precedes probable generic synonyms that are treated as synonyms in GRIN but may be accepted elsewhere.

~ precedes possible generic synonyms that are accepted in GRIN but treated as synonyms elsewhere.

indicates homotypic synonymy, i.e. based on the same type as the accepted name, as per a basionym.

aggr. aggregate, an informal grouping of related species.

Amer. American.

anon. anonymous, indicating that the author of a publication is unknown.

auct. auctorum (Latin): of authors. Used to represent an incorrect usage of a name for a different taxon than the one intended by the original author.

auct. mult. auctorum multorum (Latin): of many authors. Used to represent a common incorrect usage of a name that has been widely used for a different taxon than the one intended by the original author.

auct. nonn. auctorum nonnullorum (Latin): of some authors. Used to represent an occasional incorrect usage of a name that has been sometimes used for a different taxon than the one intended by the original author.

auct. pl. auctorum plurimorum (Latin): of most authors. Used to represent the most common incorrect usage of a name that has been widely used for a different taxon than the one intended by the original author.

c. central.

cult. cultivated, cultivation.

cum (Latin): with, together with.

cv. cultivar, a taxonomic rank applied to cultivated plants under the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) (Brickell et al., 2016).

e. east, e.-c. east-central.

Eur. European.

f. forma, one of the lowest taxonomic ranks, below subspecies and variety; or, when following an author, filius (Latin): son (e.g., L. f.: son of Linnaeus).

fide (Latin): according to.

hort. hortulanorum (Latin): of gardeners, signifying that the name was first used in gardens and was later published without the name of its originator, or used here to represent a common incorrect usage of a name in horticulture for a different taxon than the one intended by the original author.

hort. nonn. hortulanorum nonnullorum (Latin): of some gardeners.

hybr. catch-all designation used in GRIN to accommodate germplasm of hybrid parentage within a given genus for which no hybrid binomial exists.

in adnot. in adnotatione (Latin): in annotation, in a note.

ined. ineditus (Latin): unpublished.

introd. introduced.

n. north, n.-c. north-central, n.e. northeast, n.w. northwest.

natzd. naturalized.

nom. ambig. nomen ambiguum (Latin): ambiguous name used in different senses which has become a long-persistent source of error.

nom. confus. nomen confusum (Latin): confused name for which the type and/or application cannot be determined and which therefore is no longer used.

nom. cons. nomen conservandum (Latin): name conserved under Article 14 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

nom. cons. prop. nomen conservandum propositum (Latin): name proposed to the General Committee for conservation under Article 14 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

nom. dub. nomen dubium (Latin): dubious name, i.e., application of name uncertain.

nom. illeg. nomen illegitimum (Latin): illegitimate name according to Article 52 or 53 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

nom. inval. nomen invalidum, nomen non rite publicatum (Latin): a designation not validly published according to Article 32 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

nom. nov. nomen novum (Latin): replacement name for an older name typified by the type of the older name according to Article 7.4 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

nom. nud. nomen nudum (Latin): a designation published without a description or reference to a published description or diagnosis as required under Article 38 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

nom. rej. nomen rejiciendum (Latin): name rejected under Article 14 or 56 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012) that cannot be used.

nom. superfl. nomen superfluum (Latin): an illegitimate name that was superfluous when published according to Article 52 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

notho- (subsp. or var.) prefix to the rank of a hybrid taxon below the rank of species.

orth. rej. rejected orthographic variant under Article 14.11 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

orth. var. orthographic variant, i.e., an incorrect alternate spelling of a name according to Article 61 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al., 2012).

p.p. pro parte (Latin): in part.

pro hyb. pro hybrida (Latin): as a hybrid.

prol. proles, a taxonomic rank formerly applied to cultivated plants and basically equivalent to the current cultivar-group.

prop. propositus (Latin): proposed.

pro parte (Latin): in part.

pro parte majore (Latin): for the greater part.

pro parte minore (Latin): for a small part.

pro sp. pro specie (Latin): as a species.

pro subsp. pro subspecie (Latin): as a subspecies.

pro syn. pro synonymo (Latin): as a synonym.

s. south, s.-c. south-central, s.e. southeast, s.w. southwest.

sect. section, a taxonomic rank of a subdivision of a genus below subgenus and above series.

ser. series, a taxonomic rank of a subdivision of a genus below section.

sensu (Latin): in the sense or opinion of.

sensu lato (Latin): in a broad sense.

sensu stricto (Latin): in a narrow sense.

spp. catch-all designation used in GRIN to accommodate germplasm of an unidentified or unnamed species in a given genus.

subfam. subfamily, a taxonomic rank of a subdivision of a family below family and above tribe.

subg. subgenus, a taxonomic rank of a subdivision of a genus below genus and above section.

subsect. subsection, a taxonomic rank of a subdivision of a genus below section and above series.

subser. subseries, a taxonomic rank of a subdivision of a genus below series.

subsp. subspecies, a taxonomic rank below species and above variety.

typo excl. typo excluso (Latin): with the type excluded.

typo incl. typo incluso (Latin): with the type included.

var. variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies and above forma.

w. west, w.-c. west-central.





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